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The government structure of the republic consists of three branches - executive, representative (Majlisi Oli - parliament), and laws. There are Constitutional, Supreme Court, Supreme Economic Court, Military court, and also local and regional courts. In the new constitution the independence of the courts makes a reservation. Chairmen, assistants of chairmen and the Constitutional Courts, Supreme, and the Supreme Economic Courts are elected by parliament under the recommendation of the President. Other judges are appointed or released by the President under the recommendation of the Minister of Justice.

Majlisi Oli - the higher state structure - consists of two chambers: Majlisi Namoyndagon (Assembly of Representatives) works on a constant basis, consists of 63 members of chamber, which was elite for five years' term (22 members of parliament are selected under party lists, 41 - in one-mandatory election districts).
Madzhlisi Milli - the body assembled as required, consists of 33 members of chamber (25 from which are selected for five years' term by local majlisi deputies and 8 appointed by the President.

The parliament considers and makes decisions on such questions, as modification and additions in the Constitution, the announcement of national referendums, acceptance of the state budget, and definition of strategic directions of development of the state. Concrete functions and responsibility of both chambers are defined by the Constitution of the country.

The constitutional court has the right to take out the final decision by definition of conformity of the Constitution of laws, legal certificates of Majlisi Oli, the President, Supreme and the Supreme Economic courts.

Local management consists of representative (majlis) and executive powers (hukumat). Majlis confirm the local budget and its expenses, social and economic programs of development of territory, establishment of local gathering and taxes, the statement or clearing of the chairman and its assistants. The head of the executive and representative power is the chairman appointed by the President of republic

Decisions of the chairman and local majlis can be appealed in court.

Constitution articles 32-40 provide inviolability of the property and the right to private property presence. The state guarantees to citizens and other subjects of the right the equal rights to enterprise and other economic activities, equality in law and the right of legal protection.

Jamoats  - local governments in countryside (rural communities), making decisions it is direct or through the representatives. Jamoats are formed by territorial sign. Financing sources of jamoats are budgetary funds allocated with city or regional Majlises of People's Deputies, and also donations of citizens and the organizations.
Such traditional local governments like mahalli committees (mahalli) (councils of micro districts, house committees, and villages’ organizations), guzary and tabagy (descents) play the important role in daily social life of the population. All these local institutes have no official administrative functions. The spiritual basis of activity of mahalli is made by traditional Islamic ideas about social justice and behavior of the person in society.

The main function of similar institutes - rendering of mutual aid to the people living in common, in the neighborhoods, nearby from each other on the decision of social conflicts, concrete human problems and needs, for example, building the new house or the bridge method "hashar".
The Local authorities have not right to carry out complete control for the activity of mahalli.

• The Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (administrative centre - Khorog, the area population - 215 thousand people (2004) which makes 3,4 % from aggregate number of the population of the country, the occupied space - 64,2 thousand square kilometers);

• Sogd area (administrative centre - Khojand, the area population - 1,992 thousand people or 30,5 % from aggregate number of the population of the country, the occupied space - 25,4 thousand square kilometres);

• Hatlon area (the regional centre - Kurgan Tyube, the area population - 2,344 thousand people or 35,1 % from aggregate number of the population of the country, the occupied space of-24,8 thousand square kilometres);

• Cities and areas of republican submission (population aggregate number - 1,467 thousand people or 22 % from aggregate number of the population of the country, the occupied space - 28,6 thousand square kilometres).

According at the end of XX-th century in Tajikistan 3,200 small settlements located, mainly, in pools of the rivers, 19 big and 49 small cities, 356 big kishlaks (villages).

Dushanbe - the capital of the country where lives 562 000 people (2000) or 9,2 % from population aggregate number, occupies the space in 0,1 thousand square kilometres, is located at height of 820 m. above sea level.

Other big cities - Khojand (the former Leninabad), Kurgan-Tjube, Kulyab, Istaravshan (were Ura-Tjube), Pendzhikent, Tursunzade, Khorog.

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